ABSOLUTE REALITY IN THE METAPHYSICS OF JOHN MCTAGGART
The article examines the metaphysical conception of English philosopher John McTaggart (1866-1925) who grounded his metaphysics on a particular understanding of the absolute reality. Specific features of this understanding, as well as its impact on the whole metaphysical system forms the problem that remains without sufficient analysis. The purpose of this article is the schematization of McTaggart’s metaphysical system as the basis for his idea of the absolute reality and the grounds for its specific understanding. A separate task is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the metaphysical system of McTaggart and to define its promising aspects. Methods. The analysis of the principal works by McTaggart depicting his metaphysical model of the world is made. Results. The analysis of McTaggart’s metaphysics gives the opportunity to claim that the fundamental role in it belongs to the categories “unity” and “differentiation”. The nature of coherence between the unity and the differentiation is used by McTaggart to prove the spiritual or ideal essence of all that exists. The philosopher proposes a model of the world as an aggregate of individual personalities or selves. A critical review of the metaphysics of McTaggart finds its major defect in unconvincing definition of the relationship between the unified and the differentiated. This defect destroys the metaphysical system as a set of mutually consistent and credible statements. However, the metaphysics of McTaggart is in certain aspects close enough to effective and promising decisions concerning extremely important metaphysical questions. Originality. The metaphysics of the English philosopher has been studied from the point of view of its organic growth on the basis of the absolute reality concept. The attempt has been made to explain its paradoxical connection of inconsistency and persuasiveness. Conclusion. The analysis of McTaggart’s metaphysical texts provides the opportunity to claim that his metaphysics is based on a particular understanding of the absolute reality. This understanding not quite satisfactory as it is opens nevertheless some interesting perspectives. McTaggart’s metaphysics one more time confirms that the metaphysical questioning about the absolute reality is to be regarded as inevitable and fruitful.
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